Sandrine Bony (LMD) and Julien Delanoë (LATMOS)

and turbulence:
Temperature, humidity, wind and pressure will be measured at high frequency. Temperature will be measured by a fine wire and Rosemount sensors. Humidity will be measured by several sensors, including a WVSSII sensor (laser diode), a dew point hygrometer and a capacitive hygrometer for slow measurements, and a Licor7500 (near-IR gas analyzer). (SAFIRE & LAERO, PI: Marie Lothon, LAERO )
FAST-WAVE:An airborne laser diode spectrometer that measures water vapour at a fast rate. (GSMA, SAFIRE & LAERO, PI: Lilian Joly, GSMA )
Microphysics:The aerosol and cloud droplet size distributions will be characterized by UHSAS (60 nm to 1μm), FSSP-300 (0.45-20 μm) and FCDP (2-50 μm droplets) spectrometers. Drizzle/rain drops and ice particles will be characterized by 2D-S (10-1280 μm) and HVPS (0.15-20 mm) imagers. A polar nephelometer (NP-IP) will measure the angular distribution of scattered light and a high-resolution imager (HSI) will characterize the morphology of ice crystals. The total water content will be measured by a CVI system (0-3 g/m³). (SAFIRE & PMA, PI: Pierre Coutris, LaMP)
RASTA Radar:RASTA is a W-band pulsed Doppler cloud radar (95GHz). RASTA is capable of retrieving the 3D wind field, i.e. the three components of the wind on the vertical plane below/above the aircraft (6 antenna configuration), by combining independent Doppler velocity measurements from the multi-beam antenna system. These three components can be converted into Earth referential horizontal wind components. Dynamical and microphysical cloud properties can also be retrieved. (PI: Julien Delanoë, LATMOS)
BASTA Radar:BASTA is a horizontally-staring cloud radar mounted on the right-hand side of the ATR-42. BASTA is a 1 W bistatic FMCW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave) 95 GHz Doppler cloud radar developed from the ground-based BASTA system. It was used in an aircraft for the first time during EUREC4A, with two antennas of 20 cm installed in back lateral windows of the ATR. The maximum range was 12 km, and the minimum detection range was about 80 m from the aircraft. The sensitivity of the radar is estimated at around -35 dBZ at 1 km. (PI: Julien Delanoë, LATMOS)
LNG Lidar:The LEANDRE New Generation (LNG) airborne Lidar system uses a Mach–Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) to measure optical parameters of aerosol and clouds and along-sight wind in the troposphere. The instrument operates in a direct detection mode (measurement of the backscattered light intensity), which has the advantage of relying on both particulate and molecular scattering, and allows extended ranges and capabilities. The High Spectral Resolution (HSR) analysis within LNG allows phase and intensity analysis simultaneously. (PI: Julien Delanoë, LATMOS)
AWALI Lidar:AWALI is the airborne version of the 355 nm eye-safe Raman lidar WALI (Water vapor and Aerosol Lidar). It will be deployed in sidewards looking mode (through the ATR-42 window, on the same side of the aircraft as BASTA) to characterize the horizontal heteorogeneities of water vapor and temperature, in addition to characterizing the horizontal distribution of clouds and aerosols. The along and across line-of-sight resolutions will depend on the sampling strategy. (PI: Patrick Chazette, LSCE)
CLIMAT CE332:Three channel downward staring measurements of infrared irradiance at 8.7, 10.8, and 12.0 μm to measure sea-surface temperature. (SAFIRE, LOA & LMD, PI: Jean-Louis Dufresne, LMD)
Pyrgeometer and Pyranometer:Hemispheric broadband upwelling and downwelling longwav  (4.5 µm– 42 µm) and shortwave (200 nm – 3600 nm) radiative fluxes. (PI: SAFIRE)
Camera VIS
A high-resolution VIS-camera (Prosilica GT 1930) VIS-camera installed and looking through one of the aircraft window, next to the horizontally-looking lidar and radar. This camera will be used to characterize the environment of lidar/radar measurements, and to reconstruct the vertical structure of the cloud side surface by stereography. (PI: Céline Cornet, LOA)


EUREC4A data paper: Bony S, M Lothon, J Delanoë, P Coutris, JC Etienne, F Aemisegger, A L Albright, T André, H Bellec, A Baron, J-F Bourdinot, P-E Brillouet, A Bourdon, J-C Canonici, C Caudoux, P Chazette, M Cluzeau, C Cornet, J-P Desbios, D Duchanoy, C Flamant, B Fildier, C Gourbeyre, L Guiraud, T Jiang, C Lainard, C Le Gac, C Lendroit, J Lernould, T Perrin, F Pouvesle, P Richard, N Rochetin, K Salaün, A Schwarzenboeck, G Seurat, B Stevens, J Totems, L Touzé-Peiffer, G Vergez, J Vial, L Villiger and R Vogel, 2022: EUREC4A observations from the SAFIRE ATR42 aircraft, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2021–2064, – a presentation of the SAFIRE ATR-42 and its instrumentation, including several instruments or techniques that will be used during MAESTRO.

BASTA: Delanoe ̈J, Protat A, Vinson JP, Brett W, Caudoux C, Bertrand F, du Chatelet JP, Hallali R, Barthes L,Haeffelin M, Dupont JC (2016) Basta: a 95-GHz FMCW Doppler radar for cloud and fog studies.J Atmos Ocean Technol 33(5):1023–1038. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-15-0104.1

RASTA: Delanoë J, Protat A, Jourdan O, Pelon J, Papazzoni M, Dupuy R, Gayet JF, Jouan C (2013) Comparison of airborne in situ, airborne radar–lidar, and spaceborne radar-lidar retrievals of polar ice cloud properties sampled during the Polarcat campaign. J Atmos Ocean Technol 30(1):57–73. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00200.1

AWALI: Chazette, P., F. Marnas, and J. Totems, 2014a: The mobile water vapour aerosol Raman lidar and its implication in the framework of the HymeX and Charmex programs: application to a dust transport process. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7 (6), 1629–1647, 10.5194/amt-7-1629-2014.

CLIMAT: Brogniez G, Pietras C, Legrand M, Dubuisson P, Haeffelin M (2003) A high-accuracy multiwavelengthradiometer for in situ measurements in the thermal infrared. Part II: behavior in field experiments.J Atmos Ocean Technol 20(7):1023–1033. doi:10.1175/1520-0426(2003)20\1023:AHMRFI[2.0.CO;2]

Pyranometer and Pyrgeometer: Kipp and Zonen CMP22 and Kipp and Zonen CGR4